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MetNet - plant pathway - superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis
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Pathway details: superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis


General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
Notes
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by aracyc:
General Information: The polyamines (the most common of which are putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are a group of positively charged organic polycations that are involved in many biological processes, including binding to nucleic acids, stabilizing membranes, and stimulating several enzymes. In plants, polyamines have been involved in senescence and morphogenesis . Their specific molecular functions in vivo are however not yet fully understood. putrescine and spermidine are found in all life forms, and spermine is found mostly in eukaryotes. putrescine is formed from L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) (this pathway or, putatively, via putrescine biosynthesis I). [Note: putrescine can also be formed directly from L-ornithine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.7). However, it has been shown in the literature that Arabidopsis thaliana most likely lacks enzymes catalyzing reaction EC 4.1.1.17 (but is present in other plant species).] There are two flavors of the ADC pathway. In both cases L-arginine is first converted to agmatine by a biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase. However, in enterobacteria and mycobacteria agmatine is converted directly to putrescine by the enzyme (this pathway), while in higher plants, Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., and lactic bacteria, agmatine is first hydrolyzed by agmatine deiminase into N-carbamoylputrescine and ammonia, and putrescine is formed by removal of the ureido group from N-carbamoylputrescine by the enzyme N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (this pathway). spermidine and spermine are formed by the addition of a propylamine moiety to putrescine and spermidine, catalyzed by aminopropyltransferases termed spermidine and spermine synthase, respectively. The propylamine group is transferred from S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine, which is produced by the action of the pyruvoyl-containing enzyme adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. The other product of the aminopropyltransferase reaction is 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled back to L-methionine. Although, in Arabidopsis, several enzyme have been predicted to have agmanitase activity, allowing the direct conversion of agmatine into putrescine, their activity remains to be confirmed.
  Parts of this pathway occur in:   cytosol     nucleus  


interactions
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Type
Enzymatic reaction
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Catalysis
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Participating entities and compounds
Linked pathways
Browse entities [100]: By type Sources & sinks All entities

Type
metabolite [17]
protein complex [11]
RNA [24]
polypeptide [24]
gene [24]


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