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Pathway details: L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis


General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
Notes
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by aracyc:
General Background Plants produce a number of non-standard amino acids that are not incorporated into proteins, including L-Nδ-acetylornithine . Although some of these amino acids participate in primary metabolism, others may play a role in plant defense by directly causing harm to the attacking pathogen or herbivore or by making nitrogen less available to it (see refs in |CITS: ). Elevated levels of L-Nδ-acetylornithine are produced in response to attack by several different insects, as well as the volatile phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in Arabidopsis, and this compound can be detected in phloem exudates. L-Nδ-acetylornithine appears to act as a defense compound against phloem-feeding herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana col where its effects may be both direct and indirect |CITS: . L-Nδ-acetylornithine has been detected in a number of different plants, including 25 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana col. Within its larger taxonomic family, the Brassicaceae, this compound was also detected in Arabidopsis shokei, Arabidopsis suecica, Capsella rubella and Boechera stricta but it was not found in at least nine other related species that were tested including Brassica oleracea, Camelina sativa, and Thellungiella salsuginea |CITS: . However, L-Nδ-acetylornithine has been reported to exist in a number of other non-Brassicaceae plant species including Corydalis ochotensis, Asplenium nidus, Bistorta bistortoides and in the seeds of legumes such as Medicago truncatula, but its presence in other species, including several grasses, remains controversial [LIPSON96]. Outside of plants, L-Nδ-acetylornithine has been detected in mushrooms and in sea cucumber, but it is unclear how this non-standard amino acid is produced in these organisms |CITS: [FINDLAY84][OGAWA87]|. About This Pathway L-Nδ-acetylornithine can be produced from at least three different amino acids, namely, proline, arginine, and glutamate, based on radiotracer studies. It is likely that these are first transformed into the non-standard amino acid L-ornithine before they are acetylated by NATA1 |CITS: . Up-regulation of the flux through this pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana col appears to be regulated, at least in part, through changes in NATA1 transcript levels since stimuli such as MeJA and insect herbivory appear to cause increased levels of NATA1 expression followed by increased levels of L-Nδ-acetylornithine. There is evidence that L-Nδ-acetylornithine must also be broken down in Arabidopsis, but the catabolic pathway has not been uncovered to date |CITS: .
  Parts of this pathway occur in: multiple locations     cytosol     nucleus     mitochondrion     plastid  


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protein complex [6]
metabolite [22]
polypeptide [9]
gene [9]
RNA [9]


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