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MetNet - plant pathway - allantoin degradation to glyoxylate II
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Pathway details: allantoin degradation to glyoxylate II


General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
Notes
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by aracyc:
Supporting evidence for this pathway in Arabidopsis: This is a superpathway composed of one or more sub-pathways that may have different levels of evidence. All of its sub-pathways have been accepted for this species using SAVI v.1.0 [more info] Summary from MetaCyc: General Background allantoin is a common product of purine degradation. Allantoin is rich in nitrogen, and many organisms are able to degrade and recycle it. Some bacteria, including , and , do so under aerobic conditions, while others such as , and do so only anaerobically. Allantoin degradation is not limited to bacteria. Ureide-transporting plants convert fixed nitrogen in their roots to allantoin and allantoate, which are then transported to upper parts of the plant, where they are degraded to release the nitrogen. In addition, some fungi and animals also degrade allantoin. The first step of the pathway, catalyzed by , comprises the hydrolysis of the internal amide bond of S-allantoin, forming allantoate . This enzyme turned out to be common to all organisms that can degrade allantoin, and is the first step in all allantoin degradation pathways. allantoate is converted to (S)-ureidoglycolate via one of two routes. In the first route the nitrogen is liberated in a single step in the form of urea ("EC 3.5.3.4"), while in the other route it is liberated in the form of ammonia in two steps, via the intermediate (starting with "EC 3.5.3.9"). The next step in the pathway is the conversion of (S)-ureidoglycolate to glyoxylate. Similarly, this conversion can proceed with the liberation of either urea ("EC 4.3.2.3") or ammonia ("EC 3.5.3.19"). Several combinations of these routes have been documented. Some organisms possess pathways that produce solely urea (see ), some produce only ammonia (see allantoin degradation to glyoxylate II), and some produce both (see ). In addition, some anaerobic organisms can degrade allantoin to instead of glyoxylate (see ). About This Pathway Complete degradation of allantoate to glyoxylate and ammonia, without the production of urea, has been demonstrated in vitro with purified proteins from . The reactions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum . There has been an ongoing debate which route is used by the soy bean plant . Early reports found that different cultivars were utilizing different routes . Specifically, |CITS: | found that the pathway in this organism proceeds without production of urea. It should be noted that a later study questioned this statement, suggesting that the previous investigations may have been misled by side effects of the enzyme inhibitor used. That study proposed that both cultivars are utilizing the same degradation pathway, in which the route from allantoate to (S)-ureidoglycolate involves the production of ammonia, while the conversion of (S)-ureidoglycolate to glyoxylate was carried out by EC 4.3.2.3, resulting in production of urea (see ).
  Parts of this pathway occur in:   cytosol     nucleus  


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