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MetNet - plant pathway - glycolysis IV (plant cytosol)
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Pathway details: glycolysis IV (plant cytosol)

General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by aracyc:
General Information: Glycolysis is the 'central' metabolic pathway that can be found, if at least in part, in all organisms. Glycolysis has evolved as a catabolic anaerobic pathway that fulfills two essential functions: i) it oxidizes hexoses to generate ATP, reductants and pyruvate, and ii) it is an amphibolic pathway (pathway that involves both catabolism and anabolism) because it can reversibly produce hexoses from various low-molecular weight molecules. In plants, glycolysis is the predominant pathway fueling respiration (see TCA cycle variation III (eukaryotic)) because, unlike animal mitochondria, plant mitochondria rarely respire fatty acids. In plants, this pathway occurs in two different subcellular locations: the cytosol and plastids, which are the sites of sucrose degradation III and starch degradation, respectively. Whereas the plastidic glycolysis pathway (see glycolysis I (plastidic)) is identical to the conventional microbial glycolysis, the cytosolic pathway (i.e. this pathway) is slightly modified. These pathways can interact with one another though the action of highly selective transporters present in the inner plastid envelope |CITS:[Emes93]|. In chloroplasts in the dark, as well as in plastids of nonphotosynthetic tissues, the primary function of glycolysis I (plastidic) is the degradation of to generate carbon skeletons, reductants and ATP for anabolic pathways such as that of fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I via acetyl-CoA biosynthesis (from pyruvate). In the cytosol, the same products are generated from the degradation of sucrose via glycolysis IV (plant cytosol). In developing oil seeds, phosphoenoylpyruvate derived from glycolysis IV (plant cytosol) is transported from the cytosol to plastids, where it is further converted to pyruvate then acetyl-CoA to fuel fatty acid and oil biosynthesis. In the cytosol, there are two alternative reactions to the plasticid pathway: EC and EC The former represents an alternative to EC; this reaction utilizes diphosphate rather than ATP to convert D-fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The plant cytosol lacks soluble inorganic alkaline pyrophosphatases (PPiases) and, consequently, contains higher concentrations of diphosphate (up to 0.3 mM |CITS:[WEINER87]|). It has been proposed that the utilization of pyrophosphate rather than that of ATP in glycolysis is favored under nutritional Pi deprivation or oxygen deficiency |CITS:[DAVIES93],. The latter reaction, EC, provides a bypass between D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate, which allows for their conversion without phosphorylation by a non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde 3-P dehydrogenase ,. This reaction produces NADPH but not ATP. Note on the sucrose-starch relationship: Sucrose and starch biosyntheses are compartmentalized. Sucrose is synthesized in the cytosol, whereas starch is produced in the plastids. The two metabolic route intersect however at the level of 3-phosphoglycerate, which can be translocated across the chloroplast membrane via a 3PGA/Pi translocator |CITS:[AVIGAD97]|.
  Parts of this pathway occur in:   plastid stroma     cytosol     plastid     nucleus     mitochondrion     apoplast   multiple locations  

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metabolite [22]
protein complex [19]
RNA [78]
polypeptide [79]
gene [78]

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