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MetNet - plant pathway - superpathway of allantoin degradation in plants
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Pathway details: superpathway of allantoin degradation in plants


General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
Notes
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by aracyc:
Supporting evidence for this pathway in Arabidopsis: This is a superpathway composed of one or more sub-pathways that may have different levels of evidence. All of its sub-pathways have been accepted for this species using SAVI v.1.0 [more info] Summary from MetaCyc: General Background The ureides allantoin and allantoate are the major nitrogenous compounds synthesized in root nodules of ureide exporting legumes, such as soybean, during nitrogen fixation. Synthesized ureides are transported from root nodules via the xylem to shoots, where they are rapidly degraded. The products of ureide catabolism are re-assimilated and utilized in nitrogen metabolism. Early reports about allantoin degradation in found that different cultivars were utilizing different routes . However, a later study concluded that the previous investigations may have been misled by side effects of the enzyme inhibitor used, and that both cultivars were utilizing the same degradation pathway. In both cases the route from allantoate to (S)-ureidoglycolate involved the production of ammonia, while urea was produced later in the pathway, by ureidoglycolate urea-lyase (EC 4.3.2.3) . The later activity was also described in (chickpea), an amide transporter . These conclusions were supported by the isolation of and from . On the other hand, a conflicting report of ammonia-producing conversion of (S)-ureidoglycolate to glyoxylate by (EC 3.5.3.19) in has been reported . Complicating things further, an (EC 3.5.3.4) has been purified from the green alga , suggesting the existence of additional allantoin degradation routes in green algae . Summary There is some uncertainty about the ureide degradation pathway in nitrogen fixing plants, since several routes are possible. The general scheme of the pathway is the degradation of S-allantoin via allantoate to (S)-ureidoglycolate, which is degraded futher into glyoxylate. However, there are two possible routes leading from allantoate to (S)-ureidoglycolate, and there are two possible routes from (S)-ureidoglycolate to glyoxylate: each of these two steps can be performed by enzyme(s) that liberate the nitrogen as either ammonia or urea. The ammonia-producing enzymes are (EC 3.5.3.9), which converts allantoate to (S)-ureidoglycolate via , and (EC 3.5.3.19), which converts (S)-ureidoglycolate to glyoxylate. The urea-producing enzymes are (EC 3.5.3.4), which converts allantoate directly to (S)-ureidoglycolate, and (EC 4.3.2.3), which converts (S)-ureidoglycolate to glyoxylate.
  Parts of this pathway occur in:   cytosol     nucleus  


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