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MetNet - plant pathway - folate polyglutamylation
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Pathway details: folate polyglutamylation


General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
Notes
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by junyoni:
General background: Folates act as carriers of one-carbon units in bacterial, mammalian and plant tissues and have been found central to the biosynthesis of various elemental compounds, including glycine, methionine, formylmethionine, thymidylate, pantothenate and purine nucleotides . Polyglutamylation of folates up to seven glutamates appears to be crucial since the turnover rate of those compounds is markedly increased |CITS: [SCOTT00]| |CITS: [KIRK94]| and meets the high demands for folates as observed in plants . The turnover of polyglutamylated folates is realized in various pathways (see folate polyglutamylation II) ensuring the recycling and interconversion of those at high costs produced metabolites . The broad variety of folates biosynthesized in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis II or formylTHF biosynthesis II form the substrates for the polyglutamylation (this pathway) and the pathway transforming the various folate species (see folate transformations). About the pathway: Polyglutamylation probably takes place after the reduction step of dihydrofoalate to tetrahydrofolate inclusive the subsequent conversion of related derivatives. The addition of glutamate residues to folate occurs via γ-carboxy-links that represent a specific bond which cannot be cleaved by peptidases or proteases specific for α-carboxyl-linked peptide bonds and require the catalytic specificity of . The serine hydroxymethyltransferase converts 5,10-methylene-THF to tetrahydrofolate |CITS: [OGREN84]| and possesses also a second catalytic activity converting 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate to 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate in the presence of glycine . In the next reaction(s) folylpolyglutamate synthase catalyzes the stepwise formation of polyglutamates from various folates which range from terahydrofolate polyglutamates over N10formyl-tetrahydrofolates to 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolates. The intermediary step of the reversible formation of N10formyl-tetrahydrofolate from tetrahydrofolate is carried out by formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase (syn. 10-formyl-THF synthetase) which has been demonstrated to possess a monofunctional activity in plants in contrast to the trifunctional complex in other eucaryotes |CITS:[Kirk94]|.
  Parts of this pathway occur in:   cytosol     nucleus     mitochondrion     plastid   multiple locations  


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metabolite [18]
gene [79]
RNA [79]
polypeptide [85]
protein complex [7]


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