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MetNet - plant pathway - glycine biosynthesis
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Pathway details: glycine biosynthesis

General info Interaction details Linked pathways Protein-protein interactions
  Pathway was created on Mon Jul 29, 2013.
 Contributed by junyoni:
In plants, glycine can be generated from at least three routes. One involves serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzes a reversible reaction, the interconversion of serine and glycine. The reaction equilibrium slightly favors glycine production. In leaves, during photorespiration when the high concentration of glycine is produced, the reaction is driven towards serine biosynthesis. In roots and other non-photorespiratory tissues, the enzyme more likely contributes to glycine biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis genome has at least five predicted serine hydroxymethyltransferase genes. Two of them have mitochondrial targeting signals, and the other three don't have any organelle targeting signals and probably cytosolic. However, their molecular functions and in vivo roles remain to be characterized. Another route of glycine biosynthesis is via threonine aldolase, which converts threonine to glycine and acetaldehyde. There are two genes in Arabidopsis encoding functional threonine aldolase. Knock-out mutants of THA1 have a 50-fold buildup of threonine and a 50% decrease of glycine content in seedlings. Knock-out mutants of THA2 is lethal. The THA2 mutant can be rescued by overproduction of threonine deaminase, another route of threonine degradation, indicating that over-accumulation of threonine rather than the decrease of glycine causes the lethal phenotype. It also indicates that glycine production via the threonine aldolase route is not essential in Arabidopsis. Glycine can also be produced from glyoxylate by glyoxylate aminotransferase. There are at least two distinct types of glyoxylate aminotransferase activities in plants. One has primarily serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity, the other exhibits primarily glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity. In Arabidopsis, a single gene, AGT1, encodes the former enzyme, whereas two genes AOAT1 (GGAT1) and AOAT2 (GGAT2) are responsible for the later enzyme activity. Mutations of AGT1 or AOAT1 indicate that both genes are important for photorespiration in the peroxisome.
  Parts of this pathway occur in:   cytosol     nucleus     mitochondrion     peroxisome   multiple locations  

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Enzymatic reaction
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metabolite [14]
RNA [25]
polypeptide [27]
gene [25]
protein complex [6]

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